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ACID Properties in DBMS

ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties of database transactions intended to guarantee validity even in the event of errors, power failures, etc.

In the context of databases, a sequence of database operations that satisfies the ACID properties, and thus can be perceived as a single logical operation on the data, is called a transaction.

For example, a transfer of funds from one bank account to another involves debiting from one account and crediting to another, and this whole process is a single transaction.

  • Atomicity
    All statements of a transaction must succeed completely, or fail completely in each and every situation, including power failures, errors and crashes. Example - Debiting and crediting in a money transfer transaction, both must happen either together or not at all.

  • Consistency
    The database must remain in a consistent state after any transaction. Data in the database should not have any changes other than intended after the transaction completion.

  • Isolation
    Isolation ensures that concurrent execution of transactions leaves the database in the same state that would have been obtained if the transactions were executed sequentially.

  • Durability
    Durability guarantees that once a transaction has been committed, it will remain committed even in the case of a system failure which actually means recording the completed transactions (or their effects) in non-volatile memory.


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