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Extracting style and content - 1

We are going to define a class to extract the style and content of a given image.

  • So basically, we build a model that returns the style and content tensors.

  • Inside of Keras the Model class is the root class used to define a model architecture. Since Keras utilizes object-oriented programming, we can actually subclass the Model class and then insert our architecture definition.

  • Model subclassing is fully-customizable and enables you to implement your own custom forward-pass of the model.

  • We are going to define our custom style-content extractor for the given image by subclassing tf.keras.models.Model. We do that by:

    • Define __init()__:

      • Call the super().__init__(), the constructor of tf.keras.models.Model which is the parent class.
      • Next, we shall set self.vgg to the vgg_layers function which we have previously defined. This returns the custom model with the specified style layers and content layers.
      • Define the layers for content and style extraction in our custom model.
      • It is important to set the trainable to False, as we want to use the same VGG19 weights trained on ImageNet Database.
    • Define call method:

      call method is regarded as the forward pass of the model. We would customize it.

      In our scenario, we define call such that we will be returned the gram-matrices representing the style of the image and, the content of the image will be returned. We shall implement the following steps in the call function:

      • We would first scale the input image values to the range [0,255].
      • Then, we shall preprocess the image using tf.keras.applications.vgg19.preprocess_input.
      • Next, we shall pass this preprocessed input to our custom model - self.vgg - we defined with the specified style and content layers using vgg_layers funtion. This returns the outputs, which contains the style and content matrices for our input image.
      • Now that we have got the style representation matrices, we shall proceed to calculate the gram-matrices of each of the style layers. We shall call gram_matrix function to do this.
      • Finally, we shall return a dictionary holding the content representations and the layer-wise gram-matrices for style representations of the given input image.


  • super().__init__() calls our parent constructor. From there on, our layers are defined as instance attributes. Attributes in Python use the self keyword and are typically (but not always) defined in a constructor.

  • tf.keras.applications.vgg19.preprocess_input returns preprocessed NumPy array or a tf.Tensor with type float32. The images are converted from RGB to BGR, then each color channel is zero-centered with respect to the ImageNet dataset, without scaling.

  • call : Once the layers of our choice are defined, we can then define the network topology/graph inside the call function which is used to perform a forward-pass.

  • Use the following code to define the StyleContentModel, which returns the style and content representations of the given input image. Each instruction in the below code is just a Pythonic implementation of the above-mentioned description. So, make sure to understand each and every line.

    class StyleContentModel(tf.keras.models.Model):
        def __init__(self, style_layers, content_layers):
            self.vgg =  vgg_layers(style_layers + content_layers)
            self.style_layers = style_layers
            self.content_layers = content_layers
            self.num_style_layers = len(style_layers)
            self.vgg.trainable = False
        def call(self, inputs):
            inputs = inputs*255.0
            preprocessed_input = tf.keras.applications.vgg19.preprocess_input(inputs)
            outputs = self.vgg(preprocessed_input)
            style_outputs, content_outputs = (outputs[:self.num_style_layers], 
            style_outputs = [gram_matrix(style_output)  
                                for style_output in style_outputs]
            content_dict = {content_name:value 
                for content_name, value 
                in zip(self.content_layers, content_outputs)}
            style_dict = {style_name:value
              for style_name, value
              in zip(self.style_layers, style_outputs)}    
            return {'content':content_dict, 'style':style_dict}

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