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Transcript: The table in the diagram has rows and every row is identified by a row key. The data in the table is ordered by the row key. As discussed earlier, a region server stores data in the form of regions. A region contains a part of the table.
A table is automatically partitioned horizontally into regions. Each region comprises of a subset of rows of a table. Initially, there is only one region for a table. A region is denoted by the table it belongs to. Its first row which is inclusive and last row which is exclusive.
As a user writes more data, the table size grows. As the size of the region grows beyond the threshold, it splits into 2 halves. As the table grows, the number of its regions grows.
A region server could contain multiple regions. In the diagram, there are three region servers and six regions.