Image Stitching using OpenCV and Python (Creating Panorama Project)

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Finding Homography Matrix

It’s time to align the images now.

We need to align the images because, though both images could form a panorama, the two could differ in terms of angle, translation, size, etc, probably caused due to orientational difference in the camera while capturing the photos. Thus, we need to find a transformation matrix to perform this alignment, which ensures compatibility to stitch and form a panorama.

A Homography Matrix is a 3x3 transformation matrix that maps the points in one image to the corresponding points in the other image.

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where (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) could be thought of the co-ordinates of the matching key-points in both the images respectively.

A homography matrix is used with the best matching points, to estimate a relative orientation transformation within the two images. Simply put, it is the perspective transformation matrix between two planes - here, the two images.

In order to find a homography matrix, at least 4 matching key-points are needed.

enter image description here


cv2.findHomography finds a perspective transformation between two planes - here, the two images. More here.

cv2.RANSAC is a method used to compute a homography matrix.

  • Get the best matches - matches - between the right and left images. If there are at least 4 matches, find the Homography matrix. Else, raise an error.

    if len(matches) >= 4:
        src = np.float32([ kp1[m.queryIdx].pt for m in matches ]).reshape(-1,1,2)
        dst = np.float32([ kp2[m.trainIdx].pt for m in matches ]).reshape(-1,1,2)
        H, masked = cv2.findHomography(src, dst, cv2.RANSAC, 5.0)
        raise AssertionError("Can't find enough keypoints.")
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