Linux Basics

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The Directory Structure

A file is kept inside a directory. A directory can have a file or another directory inside it. It is like an inverted tree.

The top-level directory is "/" called root. "/" directory does not have a parent. /A/B means B is inside A which is inside the top-level directory "root" denoted by /.

File System

List Files and Directory

To see the list of files use the command: ls

You can change the directory using the cd command. It's syntax is:

cd directory


directory is the name or path of the directory. It can be either relative or absolute.

We can also use special symbols in place of directory such as cd ~ to traverse to home directory, cd / to traverse to root directory, and cd .. to traverse to parent directory of the current directory.

Every user is given a separate home directory.

Home Directory & Current Directory

Inside the console, you are always in a directory. On login, by default, you land in your home directory.

To see the present working directory use: pwd

To change the directory to your home directory use only cd command without any arguments.

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