Predicting Remaining Useful Life of a Machine

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The remaining useful life (RUL) is the length of time a machine is likely to operate before it requires repair or replacement. By taking RUL into account, engineers can schedule maintenance, optimize operating efficiency, and avoid unplanned downtime. For this reason, estimating RUL is a top priority in predictive maintenance programs.

Three are modeling solutions used for predicting the RUL which are mentioned below:

  1. Regression: Predict the Remaining Useful Life (RUL), or Time to Failure (TTF).
  2. Binary classification: Predict if an asset will fail within a certain time frame (e.g., Hours).
  3. Multi-class classification: Predict if an asset will fail in different time windows: E.g., fails in window [1, w0] days; fails in the window [w0+1, w1] days; not fail within w1 days.

In this blog, I have covered binary classification and multi-class classification in the below sections. 

Continue reading “Predicting Remaining Useful Life of a Machine”

Your learning path in AI, Machine Learning and Deep Learning

As of today, the hottest jobs in the industry are around AI, Machine Learning and Deep Learning. Let me try to outline the learning path for you in machine learning for the job profiles such as Data Scientist, Machine Learning Engineer, AI Engineer or ML Researcher.

AI basically means Artificial Intelligence – Making machines behave like an intelligent being. AI is defined around its purpose. To achieve AI, we use various hardware and software. In software, we basically use two kinds of approaches: Rule-Based and Machine Learning based.

In the rule-based approach, the logic is coded by people by understanding the problem statement. In the machine learning approach, the logic is inferred using the data or experience.

There are various algorithms or approaches that are part of the machine learning such as linear regression (fitting a line), Support vector machines, decision trees, random forest, ensemble learning and artificial neural networks etc.

The artificial neural network-based algorithms have proven very effective in recent years. The area of machine learning that deals with a complex neural network is called Deep Learning.

As part of this post, I want to help you plan your learning path in Machine Learning.

If you are looking for a non-mathematical and light on coding approach, please go through the course on “AI for Managers“. It is a very carefully curated and a very unique course that deals with AI and Machine Learning for those who are looking for a less mathematical approach.

If you are planning to become the Data Scientist, Machine Learning Engineer or Machine Learning Researcher, please follow this learning path. This learning path is also covered completely in our Certification Course on Machine Learning Specialization

Continue reading “Your learning path in AI, Machine Learning and Deep Learning”

A Gigantic List of must-have Machine Learning Books

If you are interested in Machine Learning or Deep Learning, but struggling to decide which book to use to study the same, here is a list of the best books in these fields. What makes this list even better is that some of these books are available online, for free! So go through the list, and pick the one that suits you best.

1. Deep Learning Book
– by Aaron Courville, Ian Goodfellow, and Yoshua Bengio
This book covers them all, including the mathematics required for Deep Learning. What’s more, it is available for free from the official website of this book. This is a must have for any serious Deep Learning practitioner.

Continue reading “A Gigantic List of must-have Machine Learning Books”

Writing Custom Optimizer in TensorFlow Keras API

Recently, I came up with an idea for a new Optimizer (an algorithm for training neural network). In theory, it looked great but when I implemented it and tested it, it didn’t turn out to be good.

Some of my learning are:

  1. Neural Networks are hard to predict.
  2. Figuring out how to customize TensorFlow is hard because the main documentation is messy.
  3. Theory and Practical are two different things. The more hands-on you are, the higher are your chances of trying out an idea and thus iterating faster.

I am sharing my algorithm here. Even though this algorithm may not be of much use to you but it would give you ideas on how to implement your own optimizer using Tensorflow Keras.

A neural network is basically a set of neurons connected to input and output. We need to adjust the connection strengths such that it gives the least error for a given set of input. To adjust the weight we use the algorithms. One brute force algorithm could be to try all possible combinations of weights (connections strength) but that will be too time-consuming. So, we usually use the greedy algorithm most of these are variants of Gradient Descent. In this article, we will write our custom algorithm to train a neural network. In other words, we will learn how to write our own custom optimizer using TensorFlow Keras.

Continue reading “Writing Custom Optimizer in TensorFlow Keras API”

What is GPT3 and will it take over the World

GPT-3 is the largest NLP model till date. It has 175 billion parameters and has been trained with 45TB of data. The applications of this model are immense.

GPT3 is out in private beta and has been buzzing in social media lately. GPT3 has been made by Open AI, which was founded by Elon Musk, Sam Altman and others in 2015. Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3 (GPT3) is a gigantic model with 175 billion parameters. In comparison the previous version GPT2 had 1.5 billion parameters. The larger more complex model enables GPT3 to do things that weren’t previously possible.

Continue reading “What is GPT3 and will it take over the World”

Fashion-MNIST using Deep Learning with TensorFlow Keras

A few months back, I had presented results of my experiments with Fashion-MNIST using Machine Learning algorithms which you can find in the below mentioned blog:

https://cloudxlab.com/blog/fashion-mnist-using-machine-learning/

In the current article, I am presenting the results of my experiments with Fashion-MNIST using Deep Learning (Convolutional Neural Network – CNN) which I have implemented using  TensorFlow Keras APIs (version 2.1.6-tf).

Continue reading “Fashion-MNIST using Deep Learning with TensorFlow Keras”

Things to Consider While Managing Machine Learning Projects

Generally, Machine Learning (or Deep Learning) projects are quite unique and also different from traditional web application projects due to the inherent complexity involved with them.

The goal of this article is, not to go through full project management life cycle, but to discuss a few complexities and finer points which may impact different project management phases and aspects of a Machine Learning(or Deep Learning) project, and, which should be taken care of, to avoid any surprises later.

Below is a quick ready reckoner for the topics that we will be discussing in this article.

Continue reading “Things to Consider While Managing Machine Learning Projects”

Creating AI Based Cameraman

Whenever we have our live talks of CloudxLab, in presentations or in a conference, we want to live stream and record it. The main challenge that occurs is the presenter gets out of focus as the presenter moves. And for us, hiring a cameraman for three hours of a session is not a viable option. So, we thought of creating an AI-based pan and tilt platform which will keep the camera focussed on speaker.

So, Here are the step-by-step instructions to create such a camera along with the code needed.

Continue reading “Creating AI Based Cameraman”

Regression with Neural Networks using TensorFlow Keras API

As part of this blog post, I am going to walk you through how an Artificial Neural Network figures out a complex relationship in data by itself without much of our hand-holding. You should modify the data generation function and observe if it is able to predict the result correctly. I am going to use the Keras API of TensorFlow. Keras API makes it really easy to create Deep Learning models.

Machine learning is about computer figuring out relationships in data by itself as opposed to programmers figuring out and writing code/rules. Machine learning generally is categorized into two types: Supervised and Unsupervised. In supervised, we have the supervision available. And supervised learning is further classified into Regression and Classification. In classification, we have training data with features and labels and the machine should learn from this training data on how to label a record. In regression, the computer/machine should be able to predict a value – mostly numeric. An example of Regression is predicting the salary of a person based on various attributes: age, years of experience, the domain of expertise, gender.

The notebook having all the code is available here on GitHub as part of cloudxlab repository at the location deep_learning/tensorflow_keras_regression.ipynb . I am going to walk you through the code from this notebook here.

Generate Data: Here we are going to generate some data using our own function. This function is a non-linear function and a usual line fitting may not work for such a function

def myfunc(x):
    if x < 30:
        mult = 10
    elif x < 60:
        mult = 20
    else:
        mult = 50
    return x*mult
Continue reading “Regression with Neural Networks using TensorFlow Keras API”

Deploying Machine Learning model in production

In this article, I am going to explain steps to deploy a trained and tested Machine Learning model in production environment.

Though, this article talks about Machine Learning model, the same steps apply to Deep Learning model too.

Below is a typical setup for deployment of a Machine Learning model, details of which we will be discussing in this article.

Process to build and deploy a REST service (for ML model) in production
Process to build and deploy a REST service (for ML model) in production

The complete code for creating a REST service for your Machine Learning model can be found at the below link:

https://github.com/cloudxlab/ml/tree/master/projects/deploy_mnist

Let us say, you have trained, fine-tuned and tested Machine Learning(ML) model – sgd_clf, which was trained and tested using SGD Classifier on MNIST dataset.  And now you want to deploy it in production, so that consumers of this model could use it. What are different options you have to deploy your ML model in production?

Continue reading “Deploying Machine Learning model in production”